| 122 mm gun M1931/37|
12,2 cm K.390/2(r)
|General Historical Information|
|Place of origin:||Soviet Union|
|Debut in FHSW:||v0.5|
|Passengers:||1 or 2|
|Ammunition:|| ↑ AP|
|Elevation:||-2° to 65°|
|Rate of Fire:||4 rpm|
|Maximum Range:||20 km|
|Artillery battery:||Yes (4 guns)|
(Towned by ZiS-22 (as A-19 gun) & Munitionspanzer IV (as 12,2 cm K.390/2(r))
|Used by vehicles / ships:||ISU-122|
|Position 1:||Driver or gunner|
In early 1930's, Red army corps artillery had equipped M1910 107 mm Cannon. This gun developed by French Schneider, was good performance at 1910's, but it was already out of date in 1930's. At this time, Red army aims to Maneuver warfare, so motorized long range artillery was absolutely imperative. Some modernization program had been applied to M1910, but it was insufficiency.
Before modernization of M1910, at Russina civil war, Red army noticed the power of 120 mm river gun boat. From this experience and displeasure with M1910, Red army decided to develop a new 122 mm cannon for corps artillery. At this time, almost all artillery of red army had taken from white army. Its development was very slow and careful because they never developed new artillery. First design was completed in 1928, and prototype development was accepted in 1929, First test was in October 1931. In this test, some failure has found in muzzle break and barrels, and send back to No.38 factory and modified, then in 1933, the gun was accepted as 122 mm A-19 at last. But its development still continued till 1935. In March 1936, the gun was accepted for Red army corps artillery as A-19 122 mm M1931. The development took 8 years and 5 months, it is reflection of guardedness. In later, it was modified to extend elevation angle, and named M1931/37.
Because A-19 was developed as long range corps artillery, its muzzle velocity was enough high for anti-tank role. In 1941, this artillery helps to burn down german offensive in front of Moscow, And In 1943, it was effective against powerful German new tanks, and helped to averting a catastrophe as Red army's last hope.